About Ghana





30.8 million (2021)

Human Development Index

0.611 (2019)

GDP Per capita income

$2,205.529 (2020)

Poverty rate



English, local language mainly Twi

Area (in sq. mi)


Area (in sq. km)


Sources: National Human Development Report for Ghana


Ghana was formerly known as the Gold Coast. On 6 March 1957 Kwame Nkrumah declared the country’s independence.

On 1 July 1960, Ghana became a commonwealth republic with Nkrumah as the first President of the country. The flag of Ghana consists of the colours red, gold, green, and the black star.

In 1966 its first president and pan-African hero, Kwame Nkrumah, was deposed in a coup, heralding years of mostly-military rule. In 1981 Flight Lieutenant Jerry Rawlings staged his second coup. The country began to move towards economic stability and democracy.

In April 1992 a constitution allowing for a multi-party system was approved in a referendum, ushering in a period of democracy. A well-administered country by regional standards, Ghana is often seen as a model for political and economic reform in Africa.

Ghana's Independence Square

Dr. Kwame Nkrumah

Accra, Capital


Although Ghana’s growth has been fairly robust, the source of growth has always been biased in favour of extractive and capital-intensive service sectors, which do not have direct poverty reducing effect. Poverty endemic areas are often constrained by lack of basic infrastructure such as feeder roads that link their economic activities, mostly farming, to urban market centres.


Malaria still remains a public health concern, as it is the leading cause of morbidity in Ghana. There are still challenges in meeting the goal of reducing maternal mortality ratio to the expected 185 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births by 2015. There are rural‐urban disparities in health care services. Moreover, there is still a significant number of children of primary school age not enrolled and significant enrolment gaps also remain between the poorest and the wealthiest children.


Ghana’s forest cover continues to decline rapidly. The agriculture sector, particularly the food crop sub-sector, continues to rely on rain-fed agriculture and the adoption of limited modern agricultural techniques. Women’s lack of access to and control over land, information on land rights issues, access to formal credit from the banks, as well as storage, processing and marketing facilities limit their ability to engage independently in food crop farming activities.


The business climate in Ghana is still weak and continues to hold back productive investment, particularly in the area of manufacturing. The business community is often constrained by limited and unreliable supply of energy and affordable finance, especially for SMEs, to enable them expand production, create jobs and improve incomes of workers.

Source: United Nations Development Programme